Home   Сontacts   Map  
    Add stuff    |    Information
Search:
Allergies [16]
Allergy is a disorder of the immune system often also referred to as atopy.
Antidepressants [21]
An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia.
Arthritis [27]
Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body.
Cancer [24]
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth
Cardio & Blood [6]
Risk factors for heart disease: infections
Cholesterol [16]
A fat-like substance called a lipid. It is used to build cell membranes, hormones and bile acids
Diabetes [26]
The inability of the body to produce, or the inability to metabolize, the human hormone insulin; Diabetes insipidus, usually a disorder of the ...
Epilepsy [22]
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures
Gastrointestinal [9]
The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food...
General Health [62]
The infant, child or young person?s current health condition
Herbal [25]
Herbal tea, herbal medicine
Hormonal [23]
Hormones - Proteins produced by organs of the body that trigger activity in other locations.
Men's Health [4]
For men on fitness, health, sex, caree
Pain relief [21]
Pain management is the medical discipline concerned with the relief of pain.
Skin care [28]
The skin is the outer covering of the body
Weight Loss [24]
Loss of body weight by dieting or due to various easting disorders or medical conditions.
Women's Health [25]
Find information on women's health issues, and lifestyle at the Women's Health


Fresh material
Male fertility tests: fructose, anti-sperm antibody and post-coital tests Male fertility tests: fructose, anti-sperm antibody and post-coital tests
→ More
Impotence: some preventable causes Impotence: some preventable causes
→ More
Skirting stds Skirting stds
→ More
Male fertility: why are so many sperm needed? Male fertility: why are so many sperm needed?
→ More
Factors that affect your fertility: recreational drugs Factors that affect your fertility: recreational drugs
→ More
The most popular materials
Breast lumps: dysplasia, fibroadenosis [7659 view]
Breast lumps: dysplasia, fibroadenosis → More
Male fertility tests: fructose, anti-sperm antibody and post-coital tests [3137 view]
Male fertility tests: fructose, anti-sperm antibody and post-coital tests → More
Male fertility: why are so many sperm needed? [2684 view]
Male fertility: why are so many sperm needed? → More
Factors that affect your fertility: recreational drugs [2599 view]
Factors that affect your fertility: recreational drugs → More
Symptoms of endometriosis: dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia [2479 view]
Symptoms of endometriosis: dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia → More


Awaiting moderation 516 Article

Long-term effects of the menopause: arterial disease

        LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE MENOPAUSE: ARTERIAL DISEASE
Disease of the arteries is the Number One cause of death in women over 50. Whether the cause is heart attack or stroke, arterial disease kills one woman in every four.
The arteries carry blood from the heart all round the body, and so it is important for our health that they remain in good condition. If they become narrowed, or clogged up, then the blood can't flow so freely, and there is a much increased chance that the flow will suddenly become completely restricted, causing a heart attack or a stroke.
Some of the factors that contribute to heart disease are outside our control, such as the natural ageing process, and the hereditary aspect of heart disease; other risk factors we can do something about, by giving up smoking, not drinking too much alcohol, taking enough exercise, eating the right diet and learning how to handle stress.
One of the factors that increases the risk of developing diseases of the arteries is being male; until the age of 40-50, far more men than women die of heart disease. In fact, it is unusual for otherwise healthy pre-menopausal women to have heart attacks, whereas, sadly, it is not unusual for men in this age group to do so. The reason is thought to be the protective effect of a woman's oestrogen. Once a woman is past the menopause (whether natural or surgical) her risk of having a heart attack increases, until by the age of 75-80 she has the same risk as men.
The reason for this is possibly to do with cholesterol. There are two forms of cholesterol flowing through the blood vessels: low density lipoproteins (LDLs) which build up on the walls of the blood vessels and are 'bad for you', and high density lipoproteins (HDLs) which are 'good for you' because they latch on to the LDLs and absorb them through the artery walls to be disposed of by other organs in the body. Many years of research have shown that oestrogen lowers the level of LDLs and raises the level of HDLs. As high levels of LDLs increase the risk of arterial disease (by blocking the arteries), and high levels of HDLs are good for you (because they remove the LDLs), oestrogen has a very positive protective effect.
Also, at times of increasing age, when the major arteries of the body are narrowing, HRT is thought to widen them and so allow blood to flow more freely. In fact, women on HRT tend to have healthier arteries than those not on it; even women of 70 or more can benefit from this protective effect of HRT.
As you will read in Chapter 8, there is a small but increased risk of developing breast cancer after several years on HRT, a fact that has received a lot of publicity. However, heart disease and stroke are the largest single cause of death among women in this country, completely dwarfing the number of deaths from breast cancer. The average reader of this book over the age of 50 is many times more likely to die from heart disease or stroke than from breast cancer (although under the age of 50 the risk of breast cancer is greater). A great deal of research has been carried out in recent years into HRT's effect on menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis, but much less into its effect on arterial disease. This balance is beginning to change, and over the next few years more will become known about the effect different hormones have on heart disease and stroke. Although HRT was originally prescribed primarily to treat hot flushes, etc, and more recently also to prevent osteoporosis, it is likely that in future years it will be prescribed mainly for its role in reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Even now, it is thought that women who take oestrogen have one-third to one-half the risk of developing these two conditions than women who don't.
(It is worth noting here that almost all the studies that show the beneficial effect of oestrogen on arterial disease have been carried out on women taking oestrogen alone, and not oestrogen with progestogen, although recent work suggests that progestogen may not detract from oestrogen's cardiovascular protection; there have not yet, however, been any results based on long-term data.
To gain significant protective effect against arterial disease, you may need to stay on HRT for two years or so, preferably longer, and the effect will diminish once you stop. Even then, the oestrogen only reduces your risk of developing these diseases, it cannot guarantee that you won't get them. We are not immortal!
*18\42\4*


Print
Viewed: 674

What else is watching the people who read this article:
Roxanne Garrison [83]
Sex hormones produced at and after menopause [852]
Ramon Pugh [118]
Gerardo Walls [77]
Maryjane Jefferson [109]

Keywords for this page: Long-term effects of the menopause: arterial disease
Total 895 articles
Articles © ipeerx.com 2011